Expressing cause-effect

This paragraph is completely based on ideas from your own essays about the illiteracy of women.

********Many Moroccan women suffer from illiteracy for many reasons. First, some women are illiterate because (as – since) they couldn’t join schools when they were young. Other women suffer from illiteracy since schools are far from their houses. Moreover,some parents are poor; consequently, (as a result- therefore-hence – then- so – as a consequence-) they can’t afford to send their daughters to school. As a result, they are ignorant.Because (since-as)many women in Morocco are ignorant, they can’t have jobs or take other responsibilities outside their homes. The illiteracy of women is also due to (the result of/the effect of/the consequence of) some social stereotypes.For example; some parents think that sending their daughters to school may give some people a wrong image about their personality. Since universities are far from many places, some girls just decide to stop their education immediately after their baccalaureate. For this reason, many of them are unemployed as they haven’t got any professional diploma. The illiteracy of women results in (leads to – causes – is the cause of) many social problems. The kids will not do well at school since their mothers can’t help them with their school work. A high rate of divorce is also a result of the illiteracy of women. This is because an illiterate woman can’t solve her problems within her family.

1- Expressions that are followed by “reason”/”cause”:

Notice that an expression of “reason” is ALWAYS followed by a “reason/cause”.

**1**Some of the expressions of “reason” are followed by :


**2**Other expressions of “reason” are followed by:

a NOUN/expression WITHOUT A VERB.

**A** expressions of reason that are followed by a sentence are:SUBJECT + VERB +…….

EFFECT : subject + verb+…: many scientists emigrate
Expression of   « reason » 

  • As
  • Because
  • since


Reason :Subject+verb+…: they can’t find jobs in their homecountries.


1*Many Moroccan women are illiterate since/because/as schools were far from their houses.

2*Professionals emigrate from their countries to Canada since/as/because they can’t find interesting jobs.

**B**Expressions of “reason” that are followed by: a NOUN/EXPRESSION-NO VERB-

EFFECT : subject + verb+… : many scientists emigrate

Expression of   « reason »

  • Due to
  • Owing to
  • Because of
  • As a result of
  • As a consequence of


REASON :  Noun/Expression. : unemployment.(noun/no verb here)


1*The illiteracy of women is due to the poverty of parents.


2-*Some women are illiterate because the parents ARE poor.

3*A lot of students leave school because of family problems.


A lot of students leave school because/as/since they have family problems.

4*Ilyass has got 19/20 in English as a result of his hard work.


Ilyass has got 19/20 in English because/as/since he works hard.

IMPORTANT. Notice that you can start HERE with the cause or with the effect.NO PROBLEM if you start from the end but you have to make some small changes in the sentences.


*1*since/because/as schools were far from their houses, many Moroccan women are illiterate.

*2* since/as/because they can’t find interesting jobs, Professionals emigrate from their countries to Canada.

*3* due to the poverty of parents,Some women are illiterate.

*4* because of family problems, a lot of students leave school.


A- Expressions of “effect” that are followed by: SUBJECT + VERB+….

REASON : SUBJECT + VERB+…… : NGOs are working hard,

Expression of   « EFFECT »

  • as a result,
  • as a consequence,
  • consequently,
  • therefore,
  • hence,
  • so,
  • then,
  • thus,
  • as an effect,
  • for this reason,

EFFECT : SUBJECT + VERB+…… : our community has become better.


1- Many third world countries suffer from unemployment;as a result/as an effect/as a consequence/then/therefore/hence /so/thus,professionals emigrate to Europe.

2- Many mothers are illiterate, therefore/so/then/as a consequence/for this reason…, children don’t do well at school.

3-Rashid didn’t revise his lessons; consequently/therefore/hence…,he failed in the exam.

Notice that these expressions must always be in the middle of the sentence between the REASON and THE EFFECT: ( reasons + expression of effect + effect)

B- Expressions of “effect” that are followed by a NOUN PHRASE:

NOTICE THAT THESE ARE “VERBS” Examples: lead to – result in – gives – produces.

1 Unemployment leads to emigration.

2 Pollution causes many health problems.

3 Hard work results in success.

4 Illiteracy gives many social problems.

About these ads

2 Responses to Expressing cause-effect

  1. lansina says:


  2. NabiL says:

    thank you mister Brahim
    You are a perfect teacher


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: