Ceratainty and possibility.
2009-2010.(Please not that this is part of a modified lesson plan,if you use it as a teacher make sure that you cover the most important form/expressions of possibility and certainty).
PLAY THIS SLIDE:
WATCH THIS AMAZING LESSON FROM BRITISH COUNCIL.
CLICK HERE :CERTAINTY.htm
Dialogue1:Read the dialogue and answer the following questions:
Beth: Hi Jane !
Jane: Hi Beth! The New Year vacation is coming ,where are you going to spend your holiday?
Beth: I have not decided yet! But, I might go to Morocco.
Jane: That’s great Beth.
Beth: A lot of tourists visit Morocco every year. Hundreds of thousands.
Jane:O h I see! So Morocco must be a wonderful country.
Answer these questions:
1*Where is Beth going in the New Year vacation?
She might go to Morocco.
2*Is she certain of her destination?
No she is not certain because she says “I might go to Morocco’’.
3*What’s Jane expressing by’’ Morocco must be a wonderful place”?Is that “obligation”? ”of course no;that’s certainty”
Dialogue2:Read the dialogue and answer the questions:
Rick:Hi friend!Where were you last weekend?You didn’t come to the match.
Brahim:Oh yeah I didn’t come because I had a lot of work to do.
Rick:What about Fred? where was he? he didn’t come too.
Brahim:I really can’t say for sure.He might have gone to the cinema.But I am not certain.He could have gone to gorges as well.
1*Where was Fred yesterday?He was …………………………………
2*Are you certain of that answer?
3*Why is that only a possibility? Because Brahim said ……………..
can you listen to the mp3 audio on uncertainty in the box on the left.
|Present /Future||Expression: I am certain that……/I am absolutely certain that……/I am very certain that……. /||1*I am certain that most of my students will pass their exam.
2*I am absolutely sure that women have become much more stronger in our society
|Modal Verbs:S+ must +verb inf
S+Can’t +verb inf (when you are certain that something is impossible)
|ALI: Rashid has got 18/20 in English test!
BIHIM: He must be a hard working student. (this is the conclusion I draw from Ali’s statement).= I am certain that Rashid is hard working
|Past||Expressions: Use the expressions above with the verb in the past———————————–example||1-I am certain that Milosevic committed war crimes against Bosnian Muslims.
2-I am absolutely sure that Bush made a mistake in his war on Iraq.
|Modals:S+ Must + have + past participle.||Ali:My friend Rashid didn’t come to class yesterday. I don’t know why!
Farid: He must have been sick. I saw him in the pharmacy.=
I am certain he was sick
|Present /Future||Expression: I think that…./ I suppose that …../It’s likely that…./It’s unlikely that……/It’s possible that…/
|1*It’s likely that most of my students will pass their exam.
2*It’ s possible that most young people in our country need some help.
+ verb in the inf.
|ALI: Rashid always gets good marks in his English tests.
BIHIM: He might be a hard working student. (this is possible).
|Past||Expressions: Use the expressions above with the verb in the past—————————————————————example———————||1-It’s likely that my friend Fred was on holiday last weekend because he didn’t come to the foot-ball match we had.|
|Modals: might/could + have + past participle.||Ali: My friend Rashid didn’t come to class yesterday. I don’t know why!
Farid: He could have been sick. =I am not certain he was sick but it’s possible that he was sick.