EXPRESSING “Purpose”

November 25, 2010

Functions :Expressing Purpose.

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Read this dialog first and look at the ways in which these people are expressing what they want.

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Ralph: Hi Beth. How are you?

Beth: Hi, I am fine. Thanks.What are you doing?

Ralph: I am revising my lessons. I want to have a good mark in the test.

Beth: Oh, so you are revising so as to have a good mark in the test.

Ralph: exactly. Do you think that studying English is important?

Beth: Yes of course, it is. Many people in the world today are learning English in order to be able to use the internet. A lot of materials on the web are in English.

Ralph: True, we should also learn English so that we understand other cultures. English is the language of the whole world, so if you want to speak with anyone from a different country,you should use English.

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Notice that in the highlighted sentences- in yellow- the speakers are expressing their purpose in doing something. The sentences which express purpose are:

** You are revising so as to have a good mark in the test.

** Many people in the world today are learning English in order to be able to use the internet.

** We should also learn English so that we understand other cultures.

Notice that “purpose” doesn’t mean “cause”. The “purpose” of doing something doesn’t mean the “cause” behind doing something.

LOOK (*-*) the cause of something is what caused it. For example:

** Rashid has a good mark in the test because he revised his lessons well.

So in this example the “cause” of the good mark is the hard work of Rashid/his revision.

BUT: ** “Rashid revises his lessons so as to have a good mark”. In this sentence we don’t have the “cause”; we have “purpose” which is the same as the “goal/intention/aim”.

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What about the structure of the expressions above: ***so as to + verb in the infinitive.

***in order to + verb in the infinitive.

*** so that + subject + verb.

OTHER WAYS TO EXPRESS PURPOSE:

You can still use other expressions to express your purpose in doing something: Look at these examples and try to see the expressions and how they are used:

***Young people should work hard in order to improve their conditions.

***Young people should work hard to improve their conditions.

This one is shorter and simpler. We can use only the infinitive particle “to” + verb to express purpose in English.

*** Tom is working overtime to get more money. – The infinitive is used to express purpose.

*** Tom is working overtime with a view to getting more money.

I hope you see the difference here: when you use with a view tofor purpose, it should be + gerund. — The gerund is the verb in the form of “ing”—to make it simple!

You can still use the expressions above with “not” and say: “so as not to “+ verb inf.///”in order not to “+ verb infinitive.

It doesn’t make any difference; it’s all the same. Look at these examples:

*** We should burn rubbish so as to protect our environment.

*** We should burn rubbish so as not to pollute our environment. ———-the same thing.

***Women should work hard in order to get their rights.

***Women should work hard in order not to be inferior to men.

The expressions in a chart:

The expression

What follows the expression

In order (not) to…………..

The verb

So as (not) to………………

The verb

So that…………………….

A subject + verb

With a view to……………..

The gerund

For……………………

The gerund

Exercise: Before you think of an exercise, think of examples of sentences in which you express purpose. Use the different expressions above in many sentences.

The following examples are taken from Moroccan Baccalaureate National exams.

1- Match each sentence with its appropriate function: 2008 exam. 3/40

1. Although many efforts are made, our environment is still in danger.

2. Computers save time. As a result, nearly all
businesses use them.

3. Brain drain refers to the emigration of skilled
workers to developed countries.

a-Addition.

b-Defining.

c-Cause and effect.

d-Concession

2- Match the expressions with their appropriate functions: 2010 exam. 2/40

1. “You’d better do some exercises in the workbook.
 

2 . “Could you close the window, please?

a-Requesting. b-Apologizing. c-Suggesting.

3- Match each statement with its appropriate function: 2010 exam. 4/40

1 1-“In my view, parents are too tolerant with their kids,”       Harry told his classmates.

2-Brain drain refers to the emigration of educated and skilled people.

3-Computers are used not only for learning but also for entertainment.

4-“Our team trained hard so as to be ready for the final match”, the coach said.

a-Purpose.

b-Opinion.

c-Defining.

d-addition

4-Match each sentence with its appropriate function.2008 exam 3/40


1-Due to his frequent absence from work, Tony was not promoted.

2-Sarah is exercising hard in order to lose weight.

3-Young people use the Internet to access  information. Moreover, they use it for entertainment.

a-Purpose. b-Addition. c-Concession
d-Cause/ effect.

5- Match each statement with its appropriate function:
2010 exam. 4/40

1. “ I am sorry, I took your keys by mistake”, he said.

2. Nancy took up English lessons to increase her chances to get the job.

3. “Would you like a cup of tea?” he asked me.

4. Mr Baker attended the meeting despite his sickness.


a-Concession.

b-Apology.

c-Offering.

d-Purpose.

6- Match the sentence with its appropriate function:
2010 exam. 2/40

1.”You’d better revise your lessons regularly”.

2. “I am sorry to say this, but your dog was barking all night long”.

a-requesting.

b-complaining

c- giving opinion.

d. advising.

7- Match each statement with its appropriate function: 2010 exam. 4/40

1. As a result of global warming, the world climate has changed considerably.

2. A lot of people get in touch with the association in order to receive help.

3. Although Nancy went on a strict diet, she didn’t lose weight.

4. As far as I am concerned, the Internet is very useful.

a–Purpose.

b-Cause and
effect.

c-Opinion.

d-Concession.

 

Join the sentences with the linking words given: collected from national exams.

1-The local authorities opened new schools. They wanted to serve the community better. (in order to).

2-The government invests a lot of money on tourism. Not many tourists visit our twon. (however).

3-Many people still use plastic bags.They are dangerous for
the environment. (although).

4-Some skilled people emigrate.They aren’t satisfied with low salaries in their countries.(therefore).

5-We rarely paly music at night.We don’t want to disturb our neighbours.(so as not)

6-Hamid did a great job. He was not offered a better position.(though).

7-Souaad did not come to the show.She was sick.( because of).

8- We are unable to get financial support. We had to abandon the project. (therefore)

9- Aziza learnt to read and write.That’s why he got excellent marks.(because)

10-Michael worked hard in and out of school.That’s why he got excellent marks. (because).

11-Adil worked in the evening.He wanted to save money to buy a computer.( in order to).

12Jamal spent al the afternoon chatting.He didn’t have time to do
his homework.( because).

13-My friends decided to go on an excursion to the Atlas mountains.They might face difficulties. (despite).

Do the exercise above first.Then, you can download answers from here:Functions exercises answers.


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